第九课. 代词
Lotusrain · Institution  1 views
代词是代替名词或一句话的一种词类,代词有不同的类型。



代词是代替名词或一句话的一种词类,代词有不同的类型。

人称代词:

I, you, he, she, it, we 和 they 被称为主语人称代词,他们在句子中取代名词作为动词(谓语)的主语,做出谓语所指示的动作。使用时,人称(第一人称、第二人称、及第三人称)、数(单数、复数)以及性(阴性、阳性、中性)三方面与被指代的名词一致。看一下下面的句子:

Lisa likes cats. She has four cats.

第一句话中,专有名词 Lisa 是动词 likes的主语,在第二个句子中,代词 she 是动词 has. 的主语, she 取代了 Lisa 在句子中的主语位置。下面是更多的例子,红色的代词取代了前面句子中的黑体字,作为动词的主语。


My name is David. I am the youngest in the family.

This is my father. He is a teacher.

This is my mother. She is a lawyer.

I have a brother and two sisters. They are Peter, Sharon and Jenny.

I have a dog. It is called Lucky.

Lucky, you are a good dog.

Good morning, children! You may sit down now.

My family and I live in a big city. We have an apartment.


me, you, him, her, it, us, 和 them 被称为宾语人称代词,他们在句子中取代名词/代词作为动词(谓语)的宾语。句子的宾语可以是接受动词动作的人,动物,地点或事物。看下面的句子:

Lisa likes cats. She likes to stroke them.

第一句话中,名词 cats 是动词 likes的宾语,在第二句话中,them 取代了cats 作为stroke的宾语。下面是更多的例子,红色的宾语人称代词取代了前面句子中的黑体字,作为动词的宾语。

I am standing on my head. Look at me.

My mother is kind. Everybody likes her.

Lisa, I told you to tidy your bed!

Sharon and Jenny! Dad is waiting for you!

Lucky and I are playing in the park. Dad is watching us.

You must not play with the knife. Give it to me.

Pick up your toys and put them away.


人称代词可以分为三组:第一人称, 第二人称,和第三人称。

讲话的主体是第一人称,包含了 I 或 me (单数) 和 we 或 us (复数). 我的主语代词 I 总是大写。

讲话的受体是第二人称,第二人称代词是 you,无论主语、宾语,还是单数、复数。

谈话涉及到的人,动物,事物属于第三人称,包含了he 或 him, she 或 her, 和 it (单数), they 或 them (复数). 代词 he 用来指单数的男人或男孩,she 用来指单数的女人或女孩。


注:人称代词的主格形式在句中作表语

May I speak to Mrs. Smith, please?

This is she (正式)/her(口语)


人称代词还有一些特殊用法,例如we,you可泛指一般人,they可泛指某些人:

We are all apt to believe what we wish to believe.

我们(人们)常常相信我(他)们愿相信的东西。

You have to be careful with people you don’t know.

和不认识的人打交道要小心。

They say it’s going to be another cold winter.

据说今年冬天又很冷。

此外,she可代表国家、船只等,it可指天气、时间等。

It is very nice today.



总结如下:


主语
宾语
第一人称单数
I
me
第二人称单数
you
you
第三人称单数
he she it
him her it
第一人称复数
we
us
第二人称复数
you
you
第三人称复数
they
them




练习 1

阅读下面这段话,在空白处天上主语或宾语代词。

My name is Charlie. __________ have two brothers. __________ are both older than

__________.Some times they take me to the park and __________ play football together. I like playing football with __________ because they are very good. We are going to the park today. Would you like to come with __________? __________ can all play together .After wards, __________ can come to my house if __________ want to. I think __________ will like my dad. He is very funny and __________ makes great pizzas.Do __________ like pizza?

练习2

在空白处填上正确的代词完成这些句子。

1 Peter and I are brothers. __________ share a bedroom together.

2 Sue isn’t well. Dad is taking __________ to see a doctor.

3 My brother is a teacher. __________ teaches English.

4 All his students like __________ very much.

5 Children, __________ are making too much noise!

6 Who are those people? Where are from?

7 Mom is a doctor. __________ works in a hospital.

8 The sky is getting dark. __________ is going to rain.

9 John, we are all waiting for__________. Are you coming with__________?

10 May __________ borrow your pen?

11 Yes, of course. When can you return __________ to__________?

12 What are __________ reading, Jenny?


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